Open Education and OERs

In his presentation, Michael McNally (2012) describes Open Education as a free exchange of knowledge.  He explains that Open Education sets out to eliminate barriers, including academic, geographic, and financial.  Based on the information presented in the video the primary objective of Open Education is to provide all with the opportunity for an education regardless of their location, prior academic experiences, and lack of funds for a higher education.  Open Education operates by creating Open Education Resources (OER), which are uploaded online and made available to the public at no cost.  These electronic resources can include lecture notes, exams, homework assignments, syllabuses, and multimedia tools.. These resources allow individuals to educate themselves on a range of subjects and content areas.

OER

Based on the information I have learned from McNally’s (2012) presentation I believe the most promising aspect of this initiative is the fact that it promotes collaboration and innovation for both teaching and learning. In addition to offering students free opportunities for learning outside of a formalized institution, it also provides educators and professors with resources for enhancing their teaching.  As a teacher I am always searching for more creative and effective ways to teach a particular skill or content; therefore, it would be helpful to explore OERs in order to gain additional knowledge or ideas.  Sharing this these types of resources increases effective and innovative teaching, which is always a good thing.

In terms of challenges, I think Open Education will have to deal with many issues and complaints regarding plagiarizing.  The existence of the Internet already poses many problems with cheating and copying.  Due to the fact that Open Education sites provide free assignments, exams, and other resources there is an increased likelihood that individuals will replicate these as their own.  The ease of access and the amount of OERs will attract students, which may limit them from demonstrating their own unique knowledge. It also offers educators the opportunity to use others’ ideas for assignments and syllabuses in their own teaching, which although can be a positive, it may also decrease the authenticity and creativity of one’s teaching.  At times, it is nice to find something that you do not have to create or implement, but it is important to be cautious that the resources are appropriate for the intended purpose and not just because it is convenient and easy.

Question: If geographic, financial, and academic barriers were not an issue, would you prefer to learn through OERs or in a formalized institution?  Why?

Click here for an OER on enhancing education through game-based learning

My learning activity of requiring students to create a diagram of an animal life cycle using the Educreations App on the I-Pad could be an OER for other first grade teachers to use in their science instruction.  By uploading the lesson plan, assessment, and student examples of my learning activity, other teachers could model or plan a lesson that includes similar elements. These types of lessons are the kind of resources I would love to find and use in my own instruction.  Sharing these ideas is a way for educators to collaborate and be innovative in their teaching with other teachers around the globe.

References

McNally, M. (2012, March 22). Democratizing access to knowledge: Find out what open educational resources have to offer. [Video file]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W2IPOgl0ZE8

 

 

Comparing Classroom Types

Below describes three various classroom models and their distinct similarities and differences in teaching and learning, as well as effective teaching techniques that can be used in each setting.

blended

Face-to-Face Classroom – Meeting with students in a classroom setting where the instructor stands in front of his or her students is considered to be a traditional model of teaching.

Teaching – In this type of classroom a teacher often uses lectures as the main tool for transmitting knowledge to students.  For this reason, teachers spend a majority of their instructional planning time on developing informative and interesting lectures that will motivate and inspire students on the subject matter. In addition, teachers use assessments as the main method of evaluating student progress in a traditional classroom, as well as papers and homework to check in on student understanding (Bates & Watson, 2008).  Teachers who teach in this type of setting have the benefit of getting to personally know their students and discover their interests, likes, hobbies, and personalities.  Having knowledge of those factors can help when planning lessons.  Traditional classroom teachers can also monitor student progress on a regular basis, which allows for him or her to differentiate appropriately and immediately for his or her students.

Learning – According to Bates and Watson (2008) students who partake in face-to-face classes have rich conversations with one another, which allow them to share their ideas and learn from one another (p. 43).  With the implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and new standards-based assessments, it is more important than ever for students to work together to solve problems and complete tasks. In addition, the social aspect of a traditional classroom is more present than in any other type of setting.  Learning how to appropriately interact and communicate with peers is as equally as important as academic learning, since they are life-long skills that a student will need in order to build future personal and professional relationships.

Teaching Technique – Much like its name “active learning” is learning by being active, whether it is through talking, writing, reading, reflecting, questioning, games, or activities.  It is an approach different from the strategy of lecturing, which is a often used in the traditional classroom. According to the University of Minnesota’s Center for Teaching and Learning (2008) “research shows that active learning improves students’ understanding and retention of information and can be very effective in developing higher order cognitive skills such as problem solving and critical thinking”.

Hybrid Classroom – A hybrid classroom splits instructional time between the classroom setting and an online forum. Crawford, Smith, and Smith (2000) refer to the hybrid classroom as the “best of both worlds” as it allows for some face-to-face interaction combined with online interactive activities. (p. 1).

Teaching – As a teacher in a hybrid classroom it is important for the teacher to have skills to effectively teach in front of a classroom, as well as via a computer.  Since a hybrid combines both environments, the teacher needs to blend both types of teaching, including direct instruction and guided discovery.  To stimulate student interest a traditional classroom teacher “may use charisma, humor, interesting lectures, and current cases to stimulate student interest” while an online classroom teacher can use “games, puzzles, and flash exercises” (Bates & Watson, 2008).  A hybrid classroom teacher has the benefit of using all of those techniques to get students engaged in learning.

Learning – Students attend class only half the time in a hybrid situation and spend the other half completing activities online.  In a hybrid classroom a student can have a mixture of formats for assignments, activities, quizzes, and test.  Some of these elements may take place during the face-to-face class meetings, while other elements will need to be completed on a computer and submitted electronically. A student in a hybrid classroom has the added benefit of making personal connections with peers and the teacher, while also having the experience with technology.

Teaching Technique – According to Dautermann (2007), “cooperative and collaborative learning are instructional approaches in which students work together in small groups to accomplish a common learning goal”.  This would be an appropriate teaching technique for a hybrid classroom because it would allow for the small groups to work together in a face-to-face setting and then continue working together through electronic communication.

Online Classroom – In an online classroom there is no face-to-face interaction between teachers or peers. Teachers and students communicate solely through the use of technology. 

Teaching – One significant difference for teachers in an online classroom compared to a traditional classroom is the lack of face time with the students.  The communication and teaching takes place completely online, which requires a teacher to have a broad understanding and experience with technology.  Compared to traditional learning, where much of the teaching is conducted through direct instruction or lectures, online learning uses the strategy of guided discovery.   Bates and Watson (2008) describe guided discovery as when “students learn on their own by observing phenomena, asking questions, allowing time for inquiry, or conducting activities and experiments followed by feedback” (p. 40).  Guided discovery is more learner-centered where the teacher’s role is to provide varying levels of guidance.

Learning – In an online classroom students engage in web-based learning. According to Bates & Watson (2008), “through online instruction a student can learn by reading text, listening to audio, observing either still or animated images, watching videos, interacting with a virtual environment, or communicating via electronic mail” (p. 39).  Online learning provides students with a wide range of methods for learning content, which helps to engage students in the information.  For the most part online learning can be completed anytime and anywhere, which presents an element of convenience that the other classroom environments do not.

Teaching Technique – According to Blumberg (2008), “the learner-centered teaching approach emphasizes a variety of different types of methods that shifts the role of the instructors from givers of information to facilitating student learning”.  This is a useful technique for online learning because the teacher is not able to deliver the information directly to students; therefore they need to be proficient at guiding students to learn the information on their own.

Question: What type of classroom do you teach in and what do you like about it?  If you are not a teacher, then what type of learning environment do you think you would prefer and why?

Click here for three useful teaching strategies that can be used in any classroom model

The digitally mediated learning activity that will be used for my final project requires students to learn about a specific animal’s life cycle through the use of the I-Pad. The students will use the I-Pad to learn about the life cycle, as well as create a diagram that includes photographs, labels, and an oral recorded description of the cycle.  Students will be working in partnerships in the context of a traditional classroom model.  At a young age it is beneficial for students to have the face-to-face interaction with their peers in order to build social and collaboration skills.

References

Bates, C., & Watson, M. (2008). Re-learning teaching techniques to be effective in hybrid and online courses. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge. 13(1), 38-44. Retrieved from https://datapro.fiu.edu/campusedge/files/articles/batesc2701.pdf

Blumberg, P. (2008) Developing learner-centered teachers: A practical guide for faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Retrieved from http://www.usciences.edu/teaching/Learner-Centered/

Crawford, C. M., Smith, R. A., & Smith, M. S. (2008). Course student satisfaction results: Differentiation between face-to-face, hybrid, and online learning environments. CEDER Yearbook, 135-149. Retrieved from http://ceder.tamucc.edu/files/yearbook_2008_toc.pdf

Dautermann, Jennie (2007). Cooperative learning. Retrieved from http://cpd.suny.edu/files/cooperative.htm

University of Minnesota’s Center for Teaching and Learning. (2008). Making Active Learning Work. Retrieved from http://www1.umn.edu/ohr/teachlearn/tutorials/active/index.html

All About Learning Communities: CoPs and PLCs

According to Jimenez-Silva and Olson (2012), “the construct of community of practice (COP) is grounded in sociocultural theories of learning and development that contend that all human development is founded upon social interaction in cultural/historical practices that are mediated by the use of cultural artifacts, tools, and signs” (p. 336).  The principles of COP helped promote the development of professional learning communities (PLCs) in schools across the nation.PLC

In his article Cranston (2011) quotes DuFour, Eaker, and Hord (2004) who state “that the most promising avenue for creating sustained, substantive school improvement is by developing the ability of the teaching staff, or faculty, to function as a professional learning community” (p. 59).  Adams (2009) describes a PLC as an opportunity for teachers, who share the same educational vision, to come together on a regular basis to establish goals and help one another in accomplishing those goals (p. 1).  More simply, a PLC is a beneficial way for teachers to work together to support one another in order to improve student achievement.

PLCs offer many benefits to student learning, particularly those students who are struggling in a particular area or with a specific skill.  The main purpose of a PLC is to review and analyze student assessment data to identify trends or areas of weakness.  By collecting this information teachers are able to target the problem areas that exist, then brainstorm an array of solutions to address those areas, which will help increase student progress (Adams, 2009).

Discussing these issues at a PLC is beneficial for teachers because it combines the diverse knowledge and experience of several individuals, which provides a teacher with a wide range of options for strategies and interventions that he/she can use to help his/her students.  Adams (2009) also points out that overtime PLCs can help to lighten a teacher’s load because teamwork divides the responsibilities amongst several individuals rather than just one (p. 3).

The use of technology can enhance a PLC by making the meetings more organized and the process more systematic.  At my school’s PLCs we use Google Docs to post the weekly meeting agenda, which includes members in attendance, group norms, materials needed, and topics of discussion.  The PLC facilitator posts the agenda up to a week prior to the meeting, which allows team members ample time to review the agenda so they are prepared for the meeting and aware of items being discussed.  In addition, at each meeting, a designated “note-taker” types detailed notes of the discussion into the Google Doc agenda so it can be referred to at a later date.  Lastly, the facilitator or any other team member can use Google Drive to upload any documents or resources that they think would be helpful to others for instructional or interventional purposes.  Google Drive has a positive effect on PLCs by increasing communication amongst all team members and making the sharing of resources easy and accessible.

Question: Does does your school or workplace incorporate technology into your CoPs or PLCs? If so, how?

Click to find out helpful ways for using Google Drive in Education: http://www.edudemic.com/12-effective-ways-use-google-drive-education/

The learning activity for my final project will require my first grade students to gain information about the life cycle of an animal through the reading of e-books or by listening to a video clip on the I-Pad. As a follow-up, the students will demonstrate their understanding of the animal life cycle by using the Educreations app on the I-Pad to create a diagram of that life cycle.  Students will use the web to search for photographs of their animal to include in their lifecycle.  They will also need to incorporate labels in their diagram and record a brief oral description of that life cycle using the app. I have chosen to use I-pads in this learning activity for a few reasons.  One being that students love using them, which automatically gets them excited and engaged in what we are learning.  Second, with the increase in technological tools both in the school and non-school settings, students need to become proficient at using technological tools to search for and create things.  This activity will allow them to do both!

References

Adams, C. (2009). The power of collaboration. Instructor. 119(1), 28-31. Retrieved from https://post.blackboard.com/bbcswebdav/pid-1932582-dt-content-rid-19591356_1/courses/EDU520.901241031757/Documents/The%20Power%20of%20Collaboration.pdf

Cranston, J. (2011). Relational trust: The glue that binds a professional learning community. Alberta Journal of Educational Research. 57(1), 59-72. Retrieved from http://ajer.synergiesprairies.ca/ajer/index.php/ajer/article/view/869

Jimenez-Silva, M. & Olsen, K. (2012) A community of practice in teacher education: Insights and perceptions. International Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. (24)3, 335-348. Retrieved from http://www.isetl.org/ijtlhe

 

 

Welcome

Welcome to Ryter’s Block!

Thanks for visiting my site.  My goal for this blog is to share my thoughts and insight regarding the current and future state of Elementary education.  I hope to build a community or “block” where others can learn new information and share their ideas regarding these topics.

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